The Challenge

JWT tokens are widely used for securing APIs through authentication and authorization. When an API request arrives, the resource server decodes and verifies the JWT token, typically validating the signature for authentication and checking claims or scopes for authorization. For example, the server might use claims in the token to decide if the user can access a particular endpoint.

However, finer access control is often needed. For instance, when a request fetches a customer’s bank account details, the server must ensure the user is accessing their own account, not someone else’s. 

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