Energy efficiency has become a paramount concern in the design and operation of distributed systems due to the increasing demand for sustainable and environmentally friendly computing solutions. As distributed systems play a critical role in various domains such as cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT), and data centers, optimizing energy consumption has significant implications for reducing operational costs and mitigating the environmental impact. This research article presents a comprehensive review of energy-efficient distributed systems, aiming to provide an overview of the existing literature, challenges, and future directions in this field. 

The review encompasses various aspects of energy efficiency in distributed systems, including but not limited to dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), load balancing and resource allocation, task scheduling and consolidation, data placement and replication, data compression and deduplication, approximate computing, and energy-aware data management and processing. Each topic is discussed in detail, covering relevant techniques, challenges, and future directions while highlighting notable research contributions and their implications.                   

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